Water can under certain circumstances become a quasicrystal – a form of organization structure of solids with icosahedral symmetry. Such a conclusion is made in the article, scientists, published in Journal of Chemistry Physics. Briefly describe the work in the press release of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Quasicrystals have forbidden to ordinary crystals the axes of symmetry, in particular, the seventh, eighth, tenth, twelfth, and other orders. Until now, some experts speculated that water may exist in the form of a quasicrystal by hydrogen bonds, but in practice it has not been proved.
The authors of the new work is also carried out laboratory experiments. With the help of computer simulations, researchers have calculated that the water can go into a state of the quasicrystal at a pressure of 5,000 atmospheres. To get out of the water quasicrystal, you must put it between two solid plates so that the distance between the plates was no greater than 8.5 angstroms (an angstrom – is 10 -10 meters).
More recently, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) proposed to amend the existing definition of the hydrogen bond – bonds, which is formed, in particular, between water molecules and largely determines the unique properties of this substance. New data indicates that this relationship may be partly covalent nature.
An example of an aperiodic tiling with 5-fold local symmetry.
Neuron neurotransmitter receptors are in general pentameric. This enables them to form pentagonal components in biological quasicrystals (similar to mathematical aperiodic tilings). As quasicrystals have been proposed to require quantum effects to exist this might introduce such effects as a component of neurotransmission and thus consciousness. Microtubules may play a role in the clustering of the receptors into quasicrystals, thus modulating their function and may even form quasicrystals themselves. Other quaiscrystals in neurons are potentially formed by water, cholera toxin complexes, and the cytoskeletal components actin and ankyrin.
Quasicrystals and Consciousness
The pentagon is a form found commonly in nature, in everything from flowers to hurricanes. It (or rather the pentacle) is also the shape of the path described by Venus in the night sky which has led to its association with witchcraft and devilry. Aperiodic tilings in mathematics have been attracting interest as they reflect the structures found in various metallic alloys called quasicrystals. Yet another example of where mathematical concepts have expression in the physical world. These structures, like aperiodic tilings (Fig. 1), have local 5-fold symmetry but overall a crystal structure. Under the rules of traditional physics they should not exist. Crystalline forms are nature seeking the lowest energy configuration. Roger Penrose has proposed that, since coordination of subunits in quasicrystals requires a global solution, non-localized quantum effects are at play.1
Following a blueprint created by UC Berkeley physicist Norman Yao, physicists at the University of Maryland made the first time crystal using a one-dimensional chain of ytterbium ions. Each ion behaves like an electron spin and exhibits long-range interactions indicated by the arrows. Credit: Chris Monroe, University of Maryland
Normal crystals, likes diamond, are an atomic lattice that repeats in space, but physicists recently suggested making materials that repeat in time. Last year, UC Berkeley’s Norman Yao sketched out the phases surrounding a time crystal and what to measure in order to confirm that this new material is actually a stable phase of matter. This stimulated two teams to build a time crystal, the first examples of a non-equilibrium form of matter.
To most people, crystals mean diamond bling, semiprecious gems or perhaps the jagged amethyst or quartz crystals beloved by collectors.
To Norman Yao, these inert crystals are the tip of the iceberg.
If crystals have an atomic structure that repeats in space, like the carbon lattice of a diamond, why can’t crystals also have a structure that repeats in time? That is, a time crystal?
In a paper published online last week in the journal Physical Review Letters, the University of California, Berkeley assistant professor of physics describes exactly how to make and measure the properties of such a crystal, and even predicts what the various phases surrounding the time crystal should be—akin to the liquid and gas phases of ice.
This is not mere speculation. Two groups followed Yao’s blueprint and have already created the first-ever time crystals. The groups at the University of Maryland and Harvard University reported their successes, using two totally different setups, in papers posted online last year, and have submitted the results for publication. Yao is a co-author on both papers.
Time crystals repeat in time because they are kicked periodically, sort of like tapping Jell-O repeatedly to get it to jiggle, Yao said. The big breakthrough, he argues, is less that these particular crystals repeat in time than that they are the first of a large class of new materials that are intrinsically out of equilibrium, unable to settle down to the motionless equilibrium of, for example, a diamond or ruby.
“This is a new phase of matter, period, but it is also really cool because it is one of the first examples of non-equilibrium matter,” Yao said. “For the last half-century, we have been exploring equilibrium matter, like metals and insulators. We are just now starting to explore a whole new landscape of non-equilibrium matter.”
While Yao is hard put to imagine a use for a time crystal, other proposed phases of non-equilibrium matter theoretically hold promise as nearly perfect memories and may be useful in quantum computers.
This phase diagram shows how changing the experimental parameters can ‘melt’ a time crystal into a normal insulator or heat up a time crystal to a high temperature thermal state. Credit: Norman Yao, UC Berkeley
The time crystal created by Chris Monroe and his colleagues at the University of Maryland employs a conga line of 10 ytterbium ions whose electron spins interact, similar to the qubit systems being tested as quantum computers. To keep the ions out of equilibrium, the researchers alternately hit them with one laser to create an effective magnetic field and a second laser to partially flip the spins of the atoms, repeating the sequence many times. Because the spins interacted, the atoms settled into a stable, repetitive pattern of spin flipping that defines a crystal.
Time crystals were first proposed in 2012 by Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek, and last year theoretical physicists at Princeton University and UC Santa Barbara’s Station Q independently proved that such a crystal could be made. According to Yao, the UC Berkeley group was “the bridge between the theoretical idea and the experimental implementation.”
From the perspective of quantum mechanics, electrons can form crystals that do not match the underlying spatial translation symmetry of the orderly, three-dimensional array of atoms, Yao said. This breaks the symmetry of the material and leads to unique and stable properties we define as a crystal.
A time crystal breaks time symmetry. In this particular case, the magnetic field and laser periodically driving the ytterbium atoms produce a repetition in the system at twice the period of the drivers, something that would not occur in a normal system.
“Wouldn’t it be super weird if you jiggled the Jell-O and found that somehow it responded at a different period?” Yao said. “But that is the essence of the time crystal. You have some periodic driver that has a period ‘T’, but the system somehow synchronizes so that you observe the system oscillating with a period that is larger than ‘T’.”
Yao worked closely with Monroe as his Maryland team made the new material, helping them focus on the important properties to measure to confirm that the material was in fact a stable or rigid time crystal. Yao also described how the time crystal would change phase, like an ice cube melting, under different magnetic fields and laser pulsing.
The Harvard team, led by Mikhail Lukin, set up its time crystal using densely packed nitrogen vacancy centers in diamonds.
“Such similar results achieved in two wildly disparate systems underscore that time crystals are a broad new phase of matter, not simply a curiosity relegated to small or narrowly specific systems,” wrote Phil Richerme, of Indiana University, in a perspective piece accompanying the paper published in Physical Review Letters. “Observation of the discrete time crystal… confirms that symmetry breaking can occur in essentially all natural realms, and clears the way to several new avenues of research.”
Yao is continuing his own work on time crystals as he explores the theory behind other novel but not-yet-realized non-equilibrium materials.
Energy and Matter
For more than sixty years since Albert Abrams, American physician, proposed biophysical information therapy (BIT), the world of Western medicine has continued to refer to classical mechanics and physics to Newton’s linear causality and has only recently shown interest for the prospects opened by quantum physics, in particular with the work of Giuliano Preparata of Dep. of physics, University of Milan, who died recently, and Emilio del Giudice, INFN Milano, pertaining to the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), that led to a new vision of condensed matter and, in particular, of living matter.
The basics of QED were published by Preparata in his book entitled “QED Coherence in Matter,” published in 1995 by World Scientific. The professor has repeatedly called for closer collaboration between physicists devoted to quantum physics and biologists-doctors in building a bridge between physics, biology and medicine, moving from the general laws of coherent physics consistent, points towards a new holistic view of life.
The points to be taken into greater consideration relate to new physics of the water, the coherence in tissue cells and interaction of ultra-weak magnetic fields with ionic systems of the cells themselves, but before examining the individual aspects of the problem, we leave that Prof. Preparata first and then Prof. Del Giudice, introduce some fundamental concepts for a holistic view of reality: the profound interrelationship between every physical item (field-particle) which forms the created reality.
The unit consists of an almost infinite number of fields-particles that electrodynamic coherence (QED) materializes on the physical plane.
Giuliano Preparata writes:
The Oneness (Unity): the universe as a unified quantum field
The Oneness emerges from a deep understanding of the concept of the quantum field. The Universe is a single field. The field is the Oneness of the Universe. The Oneness is the triumph of the unit, is the unity of the world, is that the world is ONE and the particles and every phenomenon is an aspect of this Oneness. In other words, the world is one, and you atomize it with your choice to observe it in a certain way. The observer does not see the world, but sees a piece, he cuts a slice and see what happens in that piece … but that does not mean that you break or break up the unity of the One, the origin is the ‘One and this is the basis of the whole. The matter and the field are the same throughout the universe … Coherence is the full and total realization of the Oneness. According to quantum theory advanced fields, to which we arrived, there is this “A” field, in space-time, the Oneness. Coherence springs from the same conceptual structure of these fields then, miraculously, is realized as a real fact of nature and then as a generator of observed phenomena. So the quantum fields that describe the physical reality A, they do so in this unitary form in which different parts are related, in a manner well-defined and coherent with other pieces of space and time. Coherence is precisely this realization of quantum field theory, an “Avatar”, understood as “incarnation”, matrix, epiphany of the divine.
The Oneness, through coherence, would be able to hold together the world, then from this point of view, coherence is the strong point .
The theory of quantum electrodynamics coherence has to do with the interaction between the matter fields and electromagnetic fields in unison, on certain particular carrier frequencies, with certain phase relationships. The theory of quantum electrodynamics coherence is a particular aspect of coherent realization of quantum field theory to which we had originally given the name of “super radiance”, a term coined by Robert H. Dicke, physicist of Princeton who was the first to conceive of this coherent behavior, of oscillations in phase, between atomic systems and electromagnetic fields, which then led to the laser and to other discoveries. He would have to call iporadiance, because unlike what happens to the laser, working in an excited state, the electromagnetic field is not projected to the outside of the system, like a laser beam that comes out, but remains trapped in the atomic system and it ensures coherent evolution. For which the coherent electromagnetic field and internalized is the glue of the systems and of the atomic individuals among them. Life is therefore a delicate balance between coherence and incoherence.
Emilio del Giudice writes:
The universal quantum field: the physical base of the Unity. Quantum field theory is the deepest response so far historically proposed to the problem of ‘ “one” and “many.” The Universe is described by a set of quantum fields, each of which extends indefinitely in space and time. While in classic physics the physical world is conceived as an aggregate of objects, each localized in space and time, in quantum physics each essential element of reality is coextensive with the whole universe and has an intrinsic Oneness that typically manifests in the wave appearance of the field.
The quantum field has in fact double characteristics; is a set of quanta, of granules that provide the “intensity” of the field, but it is also governed by a “phase” (which, roughly, defines the way of swinging of the field) that emerges spontaneously from the global dynamics of the set of the quanta.
The precise number of quanta and the phase can not be simultaneously defined (this “uncertainty”, discovered by Heisenberg, is the most peculiar property of quantum theory), for which the enucleation of a well-defined number of quanta (atomistic-local point of view) destroys the ability to define a “phase” and with it destroys the cosmic connection. The local point of the view and the global one are therefore complementary aspects in the context of quantum field theory. The universe, deeply one, can also be seen, in a limit, as a set of separate individual realities.
Electrodynamic coherence: the “subtle dialogue” as a physical principle of co-evolution
The physical states closest to the existence of Oneness are coherent states in which an undefined set of “particles” is described by a well-defined phase in space and time, which ensures a related and cooperative behavior (hence the name coherency) of all the components that, in the process, they lose their nature of separate individuals. Coherency is therefore the realization of quantum field theory that privileges the unitary aspects, is a materialization of Oneness.
The properties of electrodynamics coherency was first studied in the field of those interactions between atoms and electromagnetic field that make possible the realization of the laser; the “superradiance”, that is the production of an exceptionally intense electromagnetic field and concentrated on a restricted number of modes of oscillation, is a manifestation of coherence. Another aspect is that the base of the condensation of matter in liquids and solids from the gases; in this case the name should be “subradiance” because the electromagnetic field, instead of being projected to the outside is held inside of reactions – the “coherence domains” – in which the atoms are moving collectively, governed by a “phase “generated by them; example of self-regulation in nature, as opposed to the intervention “from the outside” typical of the mentality of classical physics. Besides these “coherence domains” should not be seen as “monads” in the universe, they have doors and windows.
The information field of the vector potential
The trapped electromagnetic field has with him a constant companion, the “vector potential”, totally unmeasurable quantity in classical physics, but that, in quantum field theory, influence the phase of a coherent system. The potential vector, unlike the field, is not trapped, it extends to a wide surrounding area, without transporting energy, but only information, and exerting its “subtle influence”, we could say like in computing science, by changing the phase of the coherent present systems .
Among the various coherent systems it is therefore opens up the possibility of a “subtle dialogue”, a communication without exchange of energy, which involves only the phases, which therefore escapes to each type of parcel measure and can be perceived only by those who put themselves in a wave ambit.
Next on the order of the coherency, there is the disorder of the gaseous world, of isolated atoms, localized “here and now”, submitted to the regime of the collision, of the thermal fluctuation and, taken together, bearers of a temperature and entropy.
Living matter is a synthesis between coherency and incoherency. In the interstices of the coherence domains of water, the dissolved molecules, initially not coherent, move following the selective recall, according to a resonance code between frequencies, of the coherence domains, up to build membranes with their own coherence and therefore capable to attract, according to the same laws, other molecules with their chemical interactions change the nature of the characters and, through the general property of coherence, the phases and modes of oscillation of the involved fields. The “subtle influence” of the potential vector is then undertakes to correlate all these coherent structures in the unity of the living.
In the simple liquid water, the oscillatory frequency of the field, responsible of the cohesion of the molecules, is one; when we have to deal with multiple systems, each with its own frequency, also bearing in mind that change over time, we begin to have a set of “notes” that vary over time and are no longer single, but arrangements, voices, messages. It seems the archetype of life:from a collection of unattached individual objects to an object that is “everything.” This may be one of the ways to understand the emergence of consciousness from matter.
The new Physics of Water
In coherent QED (CQED), the water is no longer the simple system, whose short-range interactions, although extremely complex and inexplicably, are not able to promote it as the protagonist of the vicissitudes of life. The interactions of CQED are able to demonstrate that the water is organized into Domains Coherent (CD) of the tens of micron dimension in which millions of molecules oscillate in phase with coherent electromagnetic field. These CDs, like islands in the sea, are surrounded by interstices of increasing size with temperature, of incoherent liquid, with the characteristics of the actual model of water. The density of the electromagnetic field depends on its wavelength and the protection of the coherent phase of the molecules is given by a sort of shell of hydrogen bonds that allow entropy to be zero within the domain.
These two forms of water, whose experimental evidence is impressive, have roles and features different and complementary.
The coherent part, highly structured in tetrahedral shape, which simulates the so called hydrogen bonding, generates magnetic structures capable in principle interact with weak electromagnetic signals and storing the information they carry.
The range of temperatures in which the biological systems can live, seems to be that in which the size of the interstices is still small enough to enable the phase matching between the various domains of coherency, but also sufficiently large to allow the entry of macromolecules. If a molecular species has a frequency of the field next to that of the coherence domain, interact in a powerful way with the same domain.
In the incoherent part of the water, which characterizes its plasticity, dragging the ion system, studied for its aspects of coherency from the same Preparata in collaboration with Del Giudice and Fleischmann. The importance of ions in the cell energy system is universally recognized and new physics of the water finally sheds light on their formation and dynamics.
The coherency in the tissue cells
The laws of CQED have important consequences in molecular biology and in medicine: with respect to cellular interactions, they constitute a good model for a tissue, because the CDs may be represented by spherules with dimensions comparable to those of a cell of medium size and in this way the existence of an ordered tissue depends on interactive attractions which probably work in a way similar to the spherules. The consequent energy gain tends to exclude any extraneous spherules whose oscillation frequency is different from that of the tissue cells, as long as it is greater than the energy gain that the intruder cell can realize interacting with its neighbors.
In the cell, the most interesting element is the DNA. In 1981, a group of researchers in the entourage of the Austrian physicist F.A. Popp demonstrated the origin of a “ultra-weak” cellular radiation, emitted by the DNA (carried by biophotons), through a dye (made of ethidium bromide) which triggers the unrolling of the DNA spiral, and its subsequent rolling in the opposite direction. The maximum level of the EM radiation emission is achieved in conjunction with maximum unrolling.
The DNA therefore does not behave only as a programmed manager of cellular activities, but also as an electromagnetic emitter for the control of cellular processes through continuous reactive pairs.
It can be assumed that the biophotons carry all electromagnetic emissions of the DNA, distributed in several intervals of the electromagnetic spectrum: audio and sub-audio frequencies for translocation and rotation activities, from sub-ultraviolet and infrared, for states oscillators, frequencies in the visible and ultraviolet for the activation of the electronic states. Hence it is clear that DNA is not only the depositary of a genetic code that manage the sequence of amino acids in proteins, but also is an active supervisor of all cellular processes via electromagnetism.
The extra-weak magnetic fields interact with the ion system cell
If a molecule oscillates with a frequency close enough to that of the field of coherence domain, you get a powerful interaction with the domain itself. Examining the structure of proteins, we see that only twenty amino acids take part in their synthesis, probably only those able to resonate with the typical frequency domains of living matter.
Rather than examining the intensity of the fields that interact with the molecules, as a qualifying parameter of cellular changes, it is of most interest to consider the phenomenon of “cyclotron frequency” of the ions located in the vicinity of the cell membranes. The cyclotron resonance (IPR) occurs when an electromagnetic radiation of well-defined frequency is absorbed by the outer electrons of atoms of non-metallic solids, subject to a magnetic field parallel to the variable magnetic field. In these conditions, the ions are forced to rotate like tops around the direction of the static field, with a radius of rotation and speed proportional to the field of electromagnetic radiation incident.
Giuliano Preparata, Emilio del Giudice and Getullio Talpo have theoretically shown that ions dissolved in a boundary layer between the membranes and coherent water domains have an effective temperature equal to zero , since they are in a coherent state and move in a medium, the boundary layer of the coherent domain of the water, the thickness of which is approximately 80 Angstroms, wherein the loss due to friction disappear. In this way, the ions confined in this space are free to move frictionless.
The aforesaid phenomenon is of great importance for biology and medicine as it makes clear the influence of magnetic fields on the kinetics of ions and of polar organic structures across cell membranes and, in other words, their role in attacking and conservating homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Living beings are in fact immersed in the static terrestrial magnetic fields which vary with the time of day and with the seasons, and have intensity and frequency included in the right dynamic to produce cyclotron movement of ions across membranes. To this we must add the alternated magnetic fields produced by the “Schuman modes” in the space enclosed by the ionosphere, and those generated by solar winds agents on the magnetosphere, whose frequency and intensity varies during the day, the seasons and the phases of the moon.
These phenomena occur at the cyclotron frequency for many ions and polar organic structures present in liquids and are thus fundamental to determine the physiological balance.
The same magnetic fields produced by the human nervous system, are more than trivial “background noise” of bioelectrical activity, but may have a specific organic function.
In conclusion, living matter cannot be regarded as simple molecular components, but must be depicted as oscillating molecules tuned with an electromagnetic field confined within a coherence domain, whose size is inversely proportional to the energy gap achieved by the oscillating molecules. The electromagnetic field which can be transmitted by the coherence domains of the size of hundreds of Angstroms, allows to carry a message (electromagnetic) from the molecules, enabling their mutual long-range attraction, provided that the emission spectrum is identical, thus excluding unwanted sporadic events. The field emitted by more co-resonant molecules is characterized by frequencies that co-resonate with other adjacent molecules, then with groupings of the same, which intervene in the biochemical process, and so on. The fact that small modifications of the molecular structure lead to a change of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted and therefore of the resonant conditions, explains how even minimal changes (addition or loss of atoms, replacement of ions, etc), radically alter the functionality of the concerned molecule.
In the human body, water molecules are in much greater proportion than any other compounds, such as proteins, and therefore are meant to transmit information in the surrounding “area” and, probably, also to amplify it.
Regarding cellular systems, it is particularly interesting studying the mechanisms through which very small signals are able to influence large cell clusters by mechanisms that amplify the stimulus in different ways. In the simplest case, the receptor activated by a molecule or adequate spectrum signal, transmits the stimulus to a cascade of other intra and extra-cellular molecules, multiplying and spreading the initial stimulus. A different solution is the “stochastic resonance” that reduces the sensitivity threshold by overlapping the background noise on the signal. In other words, a stimulating weak signal on which is overlapped a noise, causes the oscillatory switching of the receiving system with the same frequency of the weak stimulus, but with considerably greater amplitude.
The stochastic resonance has been thoroughly studied in biology and neurology with several empirical results.
Since the concept of resonance has been mentioned several times, it is appropriate to examine it in depth. Resonance is a well known phenomenon, studied by various branches of classical physics, ranging from acoustics to mechanics. The resonance mechanism allows us to trigger a train of oscillations in an instrument capable of oscillating, or enhance an oscillatory phenomenon already in place, stimulating it with the same frequency signals. The phase of incident wave respect to that of oscillation in act, will determine or the exaltation (coherent phase) or the damping (opposite phase).
In the biological world subject to the laws of quantum physics, resonance leads to an exchange of information with no real energy transfer, according to the laws already exposed, resulting in modification of the control parameters of the affected area. Bellavite and Signorini propose a very striking and effective parallelism: if during the reading of a text in which are espressed ideas that catch our mind, because we fully agree with them, a resonance of thought is created between writer and reader without any transfer of energy between each other.
To sum up
In the world of quantum physics, the “field” consists of values which do not always have well-defined values, but of which we can not, however, indicate the value simultaneously. If we fix the intensity (by determining the number of quanta), we will have a field characterized by incoherent oscillations: light; defining the phase, we can not count the quanta, but the particles have perfectly synchronized oscillations in phase and we will get the matter.
These two conditions of the same reality (energetic and material), exchange information by means of electromagnetic emissions. The exchange takes place in all possible directions, between homogeneous elements, whether they are cell clusters or organs, thus able to receive and decode the signal transmitted by a very low level. However, we have to do with an open system maintained stable by multiple adjustment processes that generate a continuous stream of e.m. signals relating all cellular activities, by the flow of nutrients to the equilibrium antioxidants-oxidants, from the production of ATP to the pH adjustment, etc.
(source: Biophysics Research)